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Breast Arterial Calcium – A Game Changer in Women’s Cardiovascular Health? – JIMG December 2019

In 2018, cardiovascular disease (CVD) was the leading cause of death among women, and current CVD-prevention paradigms may not be sufficient in this group. In this context, it has recently been proposed that detection of calcifications of the breast arteries may help improve CVD risk screening and assessment in apparently healthy women. In this narrative review, we provide an overview of the breast arterial anatomy, of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of breast arterial calcium (BAC), and of its measurement; as well as discuss the features of the BAC–CVD link. We also discuss the potential clinical applications that BAC may have for CVD prevention in the context of current clinical practice guidelines and recommendations. Finally, we review current evidence gaps and explore future directions in the field, with a focus on the implementation of mammographic BAC as a CVD-risk screening tool in routine clinical practice.


Y.S. Chandrashekhar, MD, DM, FACC

CME Editor
Ragavendra R. Baliga, MD

Renato Quispe, MD, MHS
Miguel Cainzos-Achirica, MD, MPH

CME/MOC/ECME Information

Target Audience

JACC Journal CME/MOC is intended for physicians who treat patients with cardiovascular disease.

Important Dates

Date of Release: December 2, 2019
Term of Approval/Date of CME/MOC/ECME Expiration: December 1, 2020

Availability: On-Demand
Available Dec 02, 2019 to Dec 01, 2020
Cost: FREE
Credit Offered: 1 CME Credit
1 ECME Credit
1 MOC Credit
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