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Cardiovascular Drug Interactions With Nirmatrelvir/Ritonavir in Patients With COVID-19: JACC Review Topic of the Week (JACC November 2022-2)

Nirmatrelvir-ritonavir (NMVr) is used to treat symptomatic, nonhospitalized patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) who are at high risk of progression to severe disease. Patients with cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease are at a high risk of developing adverse events from COVID-19 and as a result have a higher likelihood of receiving NMVr. Ritonavir, the pharmaceutical enhancer used in NMVr, is an inhibitor of the enzymes of CYP450 pathway, particularly CYP3A4 and to a lesser degree CYP2D6, and affects the P-glycoprotein pump. Co-administration of NMVr with medications commonly used to manage cardiovascular conditions can potentially cause significant drug-drug interactions and may lead to severe adverse effects. It is crucial to be aware of such interactions and take appropriate measures to avoid them. In this review, we discuss potential drug-drug interactions between NMVr and commonly used cardiovascular medications based on their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic properties.


Valentin Fuster, MD, PhD, MACC

CME Editor
Ragavendra R. Baliga, MD

Sonu Abraham, MD
Sourbha S. Dani, MD, MSc
Sarju Ganatra, MD

Important Dates

Date of Release: November 7, 2022
Term of Approval/Date of CME/MOC/ECME Expiration: November 6, 2023

Availability: Retired
Cost: FREE
Credit Offered:
No Credit Offered
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