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Impact of Sex on Cardiovascular Adaptations to Exercise: JACC Review Topic of the Week (JACC September 2023-1)
Routine exercise leads to cardiovascular adaptations that differ based on sex. Use of cardiac testing to screen athletes has driven research to define how these sex-based adaptations manifest on the electrocardiogram and cardiac imaging. Importantly, sex-based differences in cardiovascular structure and outcomes in athletes often parallel findings in the general population, underscoring the importance of understanding their mechanisms. Substantial gaps exist in the understanding of why cardiovascular adaptations and outcomes related to exercise differ by sex due to underrepresentation of female participants in research. As female sports participation rates have increased dramatically over several decades, it also remains unknown if differences observed in older athletes reflect biological mechanisms versus less lifetime access to sports in females. In this review, we will assess the effect of sex on cardiovascular adaptations and outcomes related to exercise, identify the impact of sex hormones on exercise performance, and highlight key areas for future research. 

Valentin Fuster, MD, PhD, MACC

CME Editor
Ragavendra R. Baliga, MD

Gbemiga G. Sofowora, MB, ChB, FACC

Important Dates
Date of Release: August 28, 2023

Term of Approval/Date of CME/MOC Expiration: August 27, 2024
Availability: On-Demand
Expires on Aug 27, 2024
Cost: FREE
Credit Offered:
1 CME Credit
1 ABIM-MOC Point
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